Vietnam passed a lot of new IP laws in advance of its accession to the World Trade Organization for compliance with TRIPs standards. This increased awareness of intellectual property and brought more infringers to negotiations with rights holders. But the law has loopholes and is being applied inconsistently, with regards to fines for instance. Prison sentences are short if applied at all. Cybersquatters are impossible to prosecute and no one wants to be the first to try a court battle. Despite significant legislative efforts, enforcement remains a challenge.